Engineered Decellularized Matrices to instruct osteoprogenitor cells into bone regeneration processes.
Papadimitropoulos A, Scotti C, Bourgine PE, Scherberich A, Martin I.
Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, cell-based products have not yet reached the stage of clinical adoption. This is due to the uncertain advantages from the standard-of-care, combined with challenging cost-and regulatory-related issues. Novel therapeutic approaches could be based on exploitation of the intrinsic regenerative capacity of bone tissue, provided the development of a deeper understanding of its healing mechanisms. While it is well-established that endogenous progenitors can be activated toward bone formation by overdoses of single morphogens, the challenge to stimulate the healing processes by coordinated and controlled stimulation of specific cell populations remains open. Here, we review the recent approaches to generate osteoinductive materials based on the use of decellularized extracellular matrices (ECM) as reservoirs of multiple factors presented at physiological doses and through the appropriate ligands. We then propose the generation of customized engineered and decellularized ECM (i) as a tool to better understand the processes of bone regeneration and (ii) as safe and effective “off-the-shelf” bone grafts for clinical use.